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Causal Reasoning

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Causal Reasoning —Mill's Methods

Method of Agreement

If in all cases where an effect occurs, there is a single prior factor X that is common to all those cases, then X is the cause of the effect.


Method of Concomitant Variation

We associate a quantitative change in the effect with a quantitative change in the resumed cause.


Method of Difference

Where one situation leads to an effect, and another which does not, and the only difference is the presence of a single factor in the first situation, you can infer this factor as the cause of the effect.

Method of Residues

If a variety of causes have been established to produce a variety of effects, and we have matched up all the causes, except one, with all the effects, except one, then the remaining effect can be attributed to the remaining cause.


From: CUNY School of Professional Studies