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The Control of the Natural Forces 2012

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THE CONTROL OF THE NATURAL FORCES

Frank Znidarsic

Znidarsic Science SBooks
Revised 12/2012

ABSTRACT

An understanding of the natural world has progressed in the direction of higher energies. The stationary quantum state has emerged as a central theme within this quest. The stationary quantum states were used to explain the workings of nature. The emergence of the macroscopic multi-body cold fusion phenomena has allowed an understanding of the nature to progress in the direction of lower energies. Quantum effects emerge from the Newtonian classical realm at these intermediate energy levels. This author’s qualification of this realm has revealed the transitional speed. The introduction of the transitional speed has provided a causative explanation for the quantum condition. This paper will produce the energy of the photon, the energy levels of the hydrogen atom, and the probability of transition as effects of the transitional speed. An understanding of the process of the quantum transition may lead to the development of many new technologies.


INTRODUCTION

Joseph von Fraunhofer devised the first spectrometer, in the early 1800’s. He discovered, with his device, spectral lines within the Sun’s light. He used these lines as reference points in the design of achromatic lenses.1 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff, in the mid 1800’s, discovered spectral lines in the light that emanated from the elements within the flame of their Bunsen burner.2 Johann Balmer produced an empirical equation that described this spectrum, in the late 1800’s.3

Johannes Rydberg extended Baumer’s formulation to the spectra of all of the elements.4  These discoveries allowed astronomers to determine the elemental composition of stellar objects. These early scientists could not, however, provide a causative explanation for the spectral emissions.


=== In the early 1900’s Max Planck offered an explanation for these spectral emissions. He introduced the idea that thermal energy is bundled into tiny quantum units.5 Albert Einstein used Planck’s constant and showed that the energy of light is bundled into particle like photons.6 The principle of quantum correspondence emerged with the appearance of the photon. It states that the square of the amplitude of a classical light wave directly corresponds, in some limiting way, to the frequency of a photon. Niels Bohr applied Planck’s construct to the atomic structure of the atom. Bohr’s solar system like semi-classical model explained the emission spectrum of the atoms and the chemical properties of the elements.7 According to classical electromagnetic theory of James Clerk Maxwell orbiting electrons should continuously emit electromagnetic energy.8 Atoms emit packets of energy at random intervals. Bohr’s model could not explain the stability of the stationary atomic states, produce the probability of transition, or explain why the frequency of the emitted photon is not coupled to the frequency of a stationary quantum state. Lewis deBroglie offered, what has now become, the contemporary solution to this problem. He proposed that the electron has wave like properties.9 The electron does not accelerate around the nucleus, but rather, it encircles it in the form of a standing wave. A particle like photon is emitted as these standing waves instantaneously collapse. The emitted photon exists as both a wave and a particle. These properties are mutually exclusive and their simultaneous emergence is a paradox. In an attempt to reconcile some of these difficulties Bohr introduced the principle of complementarily. It states that the frequency of a quantum wave exists, in some mysterious way, as a complement to its particle of energy. This solution attempted to describe the quantum condition and, in the process, introduced many intractable problems. The deBroglie wave is a curious mathematical formulation that shrinks and swells with speed. It has no classical analog. No explanation was provided as to why the undulating deBroglie waves do not continuously leak energy through a process of radiation. The problem of the stability of the atom was, in effect, transferred from the stationary quantum state to the deBroglie wave. Max Born’s Copenhagen interpretation attempted to get around these difficulties and stated that matter’s deBroglie wave is not real.10 Born’s matter wave is a subjective construct of probability that exists only within a mathematical configuration space. Albert Einstein rejected the subjective nature of this construct and believed, until his death, that the theory of quantum mechanics was not complete.11

In the late 20th Century Frank Znidarsic observed a speed within some cold fusion and gravitomagnetic experiments. He discovered that speed is that of ‘sound’ within the nucleus. He produced a classical model of quantum reality that includes both the atomic spectra and this new observable. He discovered that the quantum condition is the result of a classical impedance match that occurs when the speed of light within the electronic structure of the atom equals the speed of ‘sound’ within its nuclear structure. Momentum is carried by the magnetic components of the force fields. Magnetism is not a conserved property. This model suggests that the magnitude of the magnetic, gravitomagnetic, and nuclear spin orbit forces converge during the quantum transition.